• What are Clinical Diagnostic Testing?

    A diagnostic test is any kind of medical test that is typically ordered by a physician for detecting a patient’s disease. Some diagnostic testing may only require simple tools and can be performed in the health care practitioner’s clinic. There are also other clinical diagnostic tests that require more elaborate equipment and may even be done in a lab environment.

    There are many kinds of diagnostic tests that are used in the medical setting, such as CT scan, PET scan, MRIs, X-rays, Discogram, Myelography (Myelogram), Electromyography (EMG), and ultrasound.  Blood test may also be used as a diagnostic tool to determine a variety of health conditions including cancer, diabetes, infection, immune system disorders, anemia, and coronary heart disease – to name a few. A blood sample may be drawn for laboratory analysis where lab workers use either whole blood to count blood cells or by separating the blood cells from the fluid that contains them. This fluid is called plasma or serum.

    Some of the most common blood tests are complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry tests, blood enzyme tests, blood clotting tests, and blood text to evaluate heart disease risk.

    Through blood diagnostic testing, a physician may also measure the level of certain immunoglobulins or antibodies. Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to fight antigens, such as bacteria, viruses and toxins. The five subclasses of antibodies that can be measured in an immunoglobulin test are Immunoglobulin A (IgA), Immunoglobulin G (IgG), Immunoglobulin M (IgM), Immunoglobulin E (IgE), and Immunoglobulin D (IgD). Below is a list of blood diagnostic tests that a health care professional may recommend for a patient. Some of the listed diagnostic tests are enzyme immunoassay (EIA) test system for the qualitative detection of IgG, IgA, or IgM antibodies in human serum.

    Food IgE Diagnostic Test

    Non-Food IgE Diagnostic Test

    Other Clinical Diagnostic Test

    • Avocado Allergen
    • Egg White Allergen
    • Milk Allergen
    • Peanut Allergen
    • Shrimp Allergen
    • Sesame Allergen
    • Gluten Allergen
    • Chestnut Allergen
    • Food Profile
    • Rice Allergen
    • Almond Allergen
    • Hazelnut Allergen
    • Carrot Allergen
    • Bahia Grass Allergen
    • Olive Tree Allergen
    • Ash Tree Allergen
    • Oak Tree Allergen
    • Alder Tree Allergen
    • Mesquite Tree Allergen
    • Perennial Rye Grass Allergen
    • Japanese Cedar Allergen
    • Honeybee Allergen
    • Hymenoptera Allergy (Bee Sting) Panel
    • False Ragweed Allergen
    • Cocksfoot Weed Allergen
    • Rough Marshelder Allergen
    • Dermatophagoides farinae Allergen
    • Stachybotrys chartarum (mold) Allergen
    • Penicillin G & V Allergens
    • Penicillin G Allergen
    • Allergy Region 1 Respiratory Panel (CT, MA, NJ, PA, VT, ME, NH, NY, RI)
    • Allergy Region 13 Respiratory Panel (So. Coastal CA)
    • Allergy Region 3 Respiratory Panel (GA, SC, N. FL)
    • Allergy Region 5 Respiratory Panel (IN, OH, WV, KY, TN)
    • Allergy Region 7 Respiratory Panel (MI, MN, WI)
    • Allergy Region 8 Respiratory Panel (IL, MO, IA)
    • Allergy Region 10 Respiratory Panel (OK and TX)
    • Allergy Region 11 Resp. Panel (AZ, ID, NM, WY, CO, MT, UT)
    • Allergy Region 12 Respiratory Panel (S.AZ, SE. CA Desert)
    • Allergy Region 14 Respiratory Panel (Central CA Valley)
    • Allergy Region 15 Respiratory Panel (NV, S. ID)
    • Allergy Region 16 Respiratory Panel (Central & E. WA, OR)
    • Allergy Region 17 Respiratory Panel (NW.CA, W. OR, WA)
    • Alkaline Phosphatase, serum
    • Cardiolipin Antibody, IgA, serum
    • Cardiolipin antibody,IgG,serum
    • Cardiolipin Antibody,IgM,serum
    • 21-Hydroxylase Antibody
    • Factor VIII, Activity
    • Lipid Panel (Cardiac Panel), serum
    • Acetylcholine Receptor Modulating Antibody
    • Hepatic Function Panel, serum
    • Anti-Mullerian Hormone
    • Anaerobic Identification
    • Tryptase
    • Amylase, serum
    • Chromogranin A
    • Anti-Stretolysin O (ASO), serum
    • Fine Needle Aspirate Cytology (e.g., thyroid, salivary gland, breast, lymph node)
    • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Antibody, IgG
    • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Antibody, IgG & IgM
    • Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Antibody, IgM
    • ABO/Rh, Blood Type
    • Adrenocorticotropic Hormone stimulation,baseline
    • Amenorrhea Profile (FSH, LH, Prolactin), serum
    • Aerobic Organism, Identification and Sensitivity
    • Antibody Screen, RBC, with reflex Identification
    • Cholinesterase, serum and RBC

    Reason for Performing Diagnostic Test

    A diagnostic test is ordered by a physician to have an answer whether a condition is present or not in the patient. Some of the reasons for a diagnostic testing are:

    1. To establish a diagnosis in symptomatic patients. For example, an ECG to diagnose ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) in patients with chest pain.
    2. To screen for disease in asymptomatic patients. For example, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test in men older than 50 years.
    3. To provide prognostic information in patients with established disease. For example, a CD4 count in patients with HIV.
    4. To monitor therapy by either benefits or side effects. For example, measuring the international normalized ratio (INR) in patients taking warfarin.
    5. To confirm that a person is free from a disease. For example, a pregnancy testto exclude the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy.

    Pros and Cons of Clinical Diagnostic Test

    When done right, diagnostic test can be of great help to professional health care providers. It is useful for screening, diagnosis, and patient management purposes. As screening tool, clinical diagnostic tests can help identify risk factors for disease and to detect occult disease in asymptomatic persons. Establishing of the risk factors may allow early intervention to prevent disease occurrence, and early detection of occult disease may reduce disease morbidity and mortality through early treatment.

    As diagnosis tool, clinical diagnostic tests help establish or exclude the presence of disease in symptomatic persons. Some tests assist in early diagnosis after onset of symptoms and signs; others assist in differential diagnosis of various possible diseases. And finally, for the purpose of patient management, diagnostic tests can help to:

    (1) Evaluate the severity of disease;

    (2) Estimate prognosis;

    (3) Monitor the course of disease (progression, stability, or resolution);

    (4) Detect disease recurrence;

    (5) Select drugs and adjust dosages; and

    (6) Select and adjust therapy

    On the other hand, a diagnostic test is not without any disadvantage. First, it can be quite inexpensive depending on the type of diagnostic test you’re recommended to take. For instance, an MRI of the head can cost more than $1400.00. Some tests may also carry a risk of morbidity or mortality. For example, intravenous contrast material used in some CT scans leads to death from anaphylaxis in approximately one in 30,000 examinations.
    For some patients, a diagnostic test cause discomfort. Furthermore, the result of adiagnostic test often has implications for further care in that a test result may mandate further testing or frequent follow-up. In extreme cases, classifying a healthy patient as diseased based on a falsely positive diagnostic test can cause psychological distress and may lead to risks from unnecessary therapy. Therefore, it is important that a clinician properly weighs the potential costs and disadvantages against the potential benefits when prescribing diagnostic tests.

    Source:http://www.hispaniaservices.com/downloads/documents/ivdmd/diagnostic_test_use_and_interpretation.pdf

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    Categories: Other Tests & Testing Kits

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